National consciousness emerged gradually in the archipelago during the first decades of the twentieth century, developed rapidly during the contentious 1930s, and flourished, both ideologically and institutionally, during the tumultuous Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, which shattered Dutch colonial authority. source

This is known as the time when the idea of Indonesia, as a nation, was born and the people of the archipelago first began to develop a national consciousness and identity as “Indonesians”. It is known as Indonesian National Awakening (Kebangkitan Nasional Indonesia).